Purpose: To develop an automated segmentation approach for cochlear microstructures [scala tympani (ST), scala vestibuli (SV), modiolus (Mod), mid-modiolus (Mid-Mod), and round window membrane (RW)] in clinical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the temporal bone for use in surgical simulation software and for preoperative surgical evaluation.
Methods: This approach was developed using the publicly available OpenEar (OE) Library that includes temporal bone specimens with spatially registered CBCT and 3D micro-slicing images. Five of these datasets were spatially aligned to our internal OSU atlas. An atlas of cochlear microstructures was created from one of the OE datasets. An affine registration of this atlas to the remaining OE CBCT images was used for automatically segmenting the cochlear microstructures. Quantitative metrics and visual review were used for validating the automatic segmentations.
Results: The average DICE metrics were 0.77 and 0.74 for the ST and SV, respectively. The average Hausdorff distance (AVG HD) was 0.11 mm and 0.12 mm for both scalae. The mean distance between the centroids for the round window was 0.32 mm, and the mean AVG HD was 0.09 mm. The mean distance and angular rotation between the mid-modiolar axes were 0.11 mm and 9.8 degrees, respectively. Visually, the segmented structures were accurate and similar to that manually traced by an expert observer.
Conclusions: An atlas-based approach using 3D micro-slicing data and affine spatial registration in the cochlear region was successful in segmenting cochlear microstructures of temporal bone anatomy for use in simulation software and potentially for pre-surgical planning and rehearsal.
Objectives: Virtual reality (VR) simulation for patient-specific pre-surgical planning and rehearsal requires accurate segmentation of key surgical landmark structures such as the facial nerve, ossicles, and cochlea. The aim of this study was to explore different approaches to segmentation of temporal bone surgical anatomy for patient-specific VR simulation.
Methods: De-identified, clinical computed tomography imaging of 9 pediatric patients aged 3 months to 12 years were obtained retrospectively. The patients represented normal anatomy and key structures were manually segmented using open source software. The OTOPLAN (CAScination AG, Bern, Switzerland) otological planning software was used for guided segmentation. An atlas-based algorithm was used for computerized, automated segmentation. Experience with the different approaches as well as time and resulting models were compared.
Results: Manual segmentation was time consuming but also the most flexible. The OTOPLAN software is not designed specifically for our purpose and therefore the number of structures that can be segmented is limited, there was some user-to-user variation as well as volume differences compared with manual segmentation. The atlas-based automated segmentation potentially allows a full range of structures to be segmented and produces segmentations comparable to those of manual segmentation with a processing time that is acceptable because of the minimal user interaction.
Conclusion: Segmentation is fundamental for patient-specific VR simulation for pre-surgical planning and rehearsal in temporal bone surgery. The automated segmentation algorithm currently offers the most flexible and feasible approach and should be implemented. Further research is needed in relation to cases of abnormal anatomy.